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Chemical and Physical Compatibility of an Intravenous Solution of Epinephrine with Calcium Chloride

Author(s):  Weeks Phillip A, Teng Yang, Wu Lei, Sun Mary, Yang Zhen, Chow Diana S-L

Issue:  Mar/Apr 2014 - Volume 18, Number 2
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Abstract:  An infusion of epinephrine combined with calcium chloride has been used historically as an intravenous inotropic solution to support critically ill heart failure patients with severe cardiogenic shock. There is no reliable data on the stability of this solution beyond three hours. This study was conducted to evaluate the chemical and physical compatibility of epinephrine (0.032 mg/mL) combined with calcium chloride (4 mg/mL) in a solution for intravenous administration up to 26 hours at room temperature. The chemical stability of epinephrine was monitored by measuring epinephrine concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography. The physical compatibility of the mixture was determined by measuring spectrophotometric absorbance between 400 to 700 nm. Absorbance greater than 0.010 AU was considered an indicator of the presence of precipitation. The results showed epinephrine with calcium chloride was stable together in normal saline up to 26 hours at room temperature, irrespective of exposure to light. The absorbance of epinephrine throughout the study was less than 0.010 AU, indicating no significant precipitation. Conclusions indicate that epinephrine (0.032 mg/mL) combined with calcium chloride (4 mg/mL) in normal saline at room temperature is acceptably stable up to 26 hours for intravenous administration.

Related Keywords: Phillip A. Weeks, PharmD, BCPS, Yang Teng, PhD, Lei Wu, Mary Sun, Zhen Yang, PhD, Diana S-L. Chow, PhD, epinephrine hydrochloride, calcium chloride, intravenous inotropic solution, cardiogenic shock, stability, packaging, storage, shelf life


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