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Physicochemical Stability of an Oral Suspension of Trimethoprim 20 mg/mL in Combination with Sulfadiazine 200 mg/mL in PCCA Base SuspendIt

Author(s):  Graves Richard A, Phan Kelly V, Bostanian Levon A, Mandal Tarun K, Pramar Yashoda V

Issue:  Sep/Oct 2017 - Volume 21, Number 5
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Abstract:  Trimethoprim is a diaminopyrimidine antibacterial agent that, like sulfonamides, inhibits bacterial folic acid synthesis, but at a different stage in the metabolic pathway. It has a similar spectrum of activity to the sulfonamides and is given by mouth or by injection, either alone or in conjunction with a sulfonamide, such as sulfadiazine. Sulfadiazine is a bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. The combination of the two drugs produces a synergistic effect against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic bacteria, by inhibiting enzymes in the folic acid pathways, which in turn inhibits bacterial thymidine synthesis. There are no published studies of the stability of the combination of trimethoprim and sulfadiazine in a liquid dosage form. An extemporaneously compounded suspension from pure drug powders or commercial tablets would provide an alternative option to meet unique patient needs. The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical stability of trimethoprim combined with sulfadiazine in PCCA base SuspendIt. PCCA base SuspendIt is a sugar-free, paraben-free, dye-free, and gluten-free thixotropic vehicle containing a natural sweetener obtained from the monk fruit. It thickens upon standing to minimize settling of any insoluble drug particles and becomes fluid upon shaking to allow convenient pouring during administration to the patient. A robust stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the simultaneous determination of trimethoprim and sulfadiazine in SuspendIt was developed and validated. This assay was used to determine the chemical stability of both drugs in SuspendIt. Samples were prepared and stored under three different temperature conditions (5°C, 25°C, 40°C), and assayed using the high-performance liquid chromatographic assay at pre-determined intervals over an extended period of time as follows: 0, 7, 14, 30, 45, 60, 91, 120, and 182 days at each designated temperature. Physical data such as pH, viscosity, appearance, and average particle size were also monitored. The study showed that drug concentration did not go below 90% of the label claim (initial drug concentration) at room temperature and in the refrigerator. The pH values also did not change significantly. There was some variability in viscosity and average particle size. This study demonstrates that trimethoprim and sulfadiazine are physically and chemically stable in combination in SuspendIt for 182 days at room temperature and in the refrigerator, thus providing a viable, compounded alternative for both drugs in a liquid dosage form, with an extended beyond-use-date to meet patient needs.

Related Keywords: Richard A. Graves, MS, Kelly V. Phan, Levon A. Bostanian, PhD, Tarun K. Mandal, PhD, Yashoda V. Pramar, PhD, trimethoprim, diaminopyrimidine antibiotic, antimicrobial agent, physical stability, chemical stability, viscosity, oral suspension, oral suspending vehicle


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