Logo - International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding

Microwave Freeze-thaw Technique for Injectable Drugs: A Review Updated from 1980 to 2021

Author(s):  Hecq Jean-Daniel, Soumoy Laura, Closset Mélanie, Colsoul Marie-Lise, Jamart Jacques, Galanti Laurence

Issue:  Nov/Dec 2021 - Volume 25, Number 6
View All Articles in Issue

Abstract:  The objective of this review was to collect information and results about the method of the microwave freeze-thaw treatment of injectable drugs and whether the method can support the development of Centralized Intravenous Admixtures Services. A systematic review of the scientific literature about injectable drug stability studies was performed. The data are presented in a table, which describes the name of the drug, producer, final concentration, temperature and time of freezing storage, type of microwave oven, thawing power, method of dosage, and the results after treatment or final long-term storage at 5°C ± 3°C. From 1980 to 2021, 60 drugs were studied by the microwave freeze-thaw treatment, and the results were presented in 49 publications. Forty papers were presented by 8 teams (2 to 18 by team). The temperatures of freezing storage varied from -70°C to -10°C, the time storage from 4 hours to 12 months, and the thaw from low to full power. Drug concentrations were mainly determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Most of the 59 drugs were stable during and after treatment. Only three teams tested the long-term stability after the microwave freeze-thaw treatment, the first for ganciclovir after 7 days, the second for ceftizoxime after 30 days, and the third for 20 drugs after 11 to 70 days. This review can help Centralized Intravenous Additive Services take charge of the productions of ready-to-use injectable drugs.

Related Keywords: Jean-Daniel Hecq, PharmD, PhD, Laura Soumoy, PharmD, Mélanie Closset, MD, Marie-Lise Colsoul, MSc, Jacques Jamart, MD, MSc, Laurence Galanti, MD, PhD, microwave freeze-thaw, injectable drugs, centralized intravenous admixtures services, systematic review, drug stability, drug reconstitution, microvascular free tissue transfer, penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, aminoglycides, antineoplastic agents, cancer chemotherapy, cytotoxic drugs, ATC A class molecules


Purchase this article for download in electronic PDF format from IJPC at for $35 at:

Search the entire IJPC archive by keyword, topic, or issue at: