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Chemical Penetration Enhancers

Author(s):  Newton Stephen J

Issue:  Sep/Oct 2013 - Volume 17, Number 5
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Abstract:  Chemical penetration enhancers are utilized in topical preparations as a method for enhancing permeation of drugs across the skin. In particular, they are utilized for transdermal delivery of medications in an attempt to produce a systemic response, to avoid first-pass metabolism, and to decrease the gastrointestinal transit time observed with oral medications. A review of the selection of chemical penetration enhancers, their mechanism of action, the most common chemical penetration enhancers in each class, and alternatives will be discussed in detail.

Related Keywords: Stephen J. Newton, RPh, topical preparation, transdermal penetration, dermal administration, skin, cutaneous absorption, ethanol, isopropyl myristate, oleic acid, emu oil, azone, propylene glycol, decyl methyl sulfoxide, NDMS, dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO, limonene, urea, carbamide, water, dimethylformamide, DMF, pyrrolidones, NMP, soft enhancement of percutaneous absorption, SEPA


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