Bot Detector
IJPC Seal
Download FREE Sample Issue or Article
LEARN MORE
Subscribe Today
A subscription to IJPC provides on-line access to full-text, full-color, printable PDF copies of your subscribed issues, individual articles, and purchased archives.

Use of Cysteine Hydrochloride Injection to Increase the Solubility of Calcium and Phosphates in FreAmine III-Containing Parenteral Nutrition Solutions

Author(s):  Trissel Lawrence A, Xu Quanyun A, Zhang Yanping, Walter William V

Issue:  Jan/Feb 2003 - Terrorism
View All Articles in Issue

Page(s):  71-77

Use of Cysteine Hydrochloride Injection to Increase the Solubility of Calcium and Phosphates in FreAmine III-Containing Parenteral Nutrition Solutions Page 1
Use of Cysteine Hydrochloride Injection to Increase the Solubility of Calcium and Phosphates in FreAmine III-Containing Parenteral Nutrition Solutions Page 2
Use of Cysteine Hydrochloride Injection to Increase the Solubility of Calcium and Phosphates in FreAmine III-Containing Parenteral Nutrition Solutions Page 3
Use of Cysteine Hydrochloride Injection to Increase the Solubility of Calcium and Phosphates in FreAmine III-Containing Parenteral Nutrition Solutions Page 4
Use of Cysteine Hydrochloride Injection to Increase the Solubility of Calcium and Phosphates in FreAmine III-Containing Parenteral Nutrition Solutions Page 5
Use of Cysteine Hydrochloride Injection to Increase the Solubility of Calcium and Phosphates in FreAmine III-Containing Parenteral Nutrition Solutions Page 6
Use of Cysteine Hydrochloride Injection to Increase the Solubility of Calcium and Phosphates in FreAmine III-Containing Parenteral Nutrition Solutions Page 7

Download in electronic PDF format for $75

Abstract:  Numerous factors (including solution pH) that influence the amount of calcium and phosphates remaining in solution or precipitating from parenteral nutrition solutions have been identified. Increased solubility of calcium and phosphates can be achieved in parenteral nutrition formulations by using a suitable acidic additive to lower the pH from the natural unadjusted level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of cysteine hydrochloride injection as an additive to FreAmine III-based parenteral nutrition solutions to increase the solubility of calcium and phosphates.

In this study, five representative core parenteral nutrition formulations containing FreAmine III 1% to 5% were evaluated. Those formulations contained cysteine hydrochloride injection 0.5 mL (25 mg) per gram of amino acids from FreAmine III to lower the pH. Varying amounts of calcium and phosphates were added to samples of the core formulations to identify the points at which precipitation just began to occur. Five series of concentrations with maxima of calcium 40 mEq/L and phosphates 40 mM/L were tested. The samples were evaluated by visual observation with the unaided eye and with a Tyndall beam to accentuate the visibility of small particles and low-level turbidity. The turbidity and particle content of samples not exhibiting visible particles or haze were measured electronically. Evaluations were performed initially and after 24 and 48 hours of storage at 23°C and 37°C. Samples were also stored for 30 days at 4°C, were warmed to room temperature, and were evaluated after warming and after additional storage of 24 and 48 hours at room temperature.

The addition of cysteine hydrochloride injection 5 mL/L for each 1% of amino acids content reduced the pH of the core parenteral nutrition admixtures from 6.4 to 5.9. The solubility of calcium and phosphates was increased by approximately 30% by that reduction in pH. The compatibility-incompatibility concentration ranges for each of the five core formulations, in which calcium ranged up to 40 mEq/L and phosphates ranged up to 40 mmol/L at temperatures of 23°C and 37°C are presented in tables and figures.

The addition of cysteine hydrochloride 0.5 mL (25 mg) per gram of amino acids from FreAmine III increased the solubility of calcium and phosphates about 30% by lowering the solution pH.

Related Keywords: Cysteine hydrochloride injection, and increasing solubility of calcium and phosphates in FreAmine III-containing parenteral nutrition solutions

Related Categories: PEER-REVIEWED

Printer-Friendly Version



Related Articles from IJPC
Title/Author
(Click for Abstract / Details / Purchase)
Issue/​Page
View/Buy
Use of Cysteine Hydrochloride Injection to Increase the Solubility of Calcium and Phosphates in FreAmine III-Containing Parenteral Nutrition Solutions
Trissel Lawrence A
, Xu Quanyun A, Zhang Yanping, Walter William V
Jan/Feb 2003
Pg. 71-77

Physical Compatibility of Calcium Acetate and Potassium Phosphates in Parenteral Nutrition Solutions Containing Aminosyn II
Zhang Yanping
, Xu Quanyun, Trissel Lawrence A, Baker Mary B
Sep/Oct 1999
Pg. 415-420

L-Cysteine Hydrochloride 50-mg/mL Injection
Allen Loyd V Jr
Mar/Apr 2015
Pg. 146

Compatibility of Baclofen, Carvedilol, Hydrochlorothiazide, Mercaptopurine, Methadone Hydrochloride, Oseltamivir Phosphate, Phenobarbital, Propranolol Hydrochloride, Pyrazinamide, Sotalol Hydrochloride, Spironolactone, Tacrolimus Monohydrate, Ursodeoxycholic Acid, and Vancomycin Hydrochloride Oral Suspensions Compounded with SyrSpend SF pH4
Polonini Hudson
, da Silva Sharlene Loures, Brandão Marcos Antônio Fernandes, Bauters Tiene, De Moerloose Barbara, Ferreira Anderson de Oliveira
Nov/Dec 2018
Pg. 516-526

Capsule and Tablet Diluents, Featured Excipient:
Allen Loyd V Jr
Jul/Aug 2000
Pg. 306-310

Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Ophthalmic Solution: Equivalent to 0.1% Dexamethasone Phosphate
Allen Loyd V Jr
Nov/Dec 2015
Pg. 508

Chemical and Physical Compatibility of an Intravenous Solution of Epinephrine with Calcium Chloride
Weeks Phillip A
, Teng Yang, Wu Lei, Sun Mary, Yang Zhen, Chow Diana S-L
Mar/Apr 2014
Pg. 152-158

Calcium Chloride 10% Injection
Allen Loyd V Jr
Jan/Feb 2012
Pg. 70

Calcium Gluconate 10% Injection
Allen Loyd V Jr
Jan/Feb 2012
Pg. 71

Stability of Aminocaproic Acid Injection Admixtures in 5% Dextrose Injection and 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection
Zhang Yan-ping
, Trissel Lawrence A
Mar/Apr 1997
Pg. 132-134

Stability of Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection at Ambient Temperature and 4°C in Polypropylene Syringes
Storms Meredith L
, Stewart James T, Warren Flynn W
Sep/Oct 2002
Pg. 388-390

Antazoline Phosphate and Xylometazoline Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Drops
Allen Loyd V Jr
Jul/Aug 2010
Pg. 336

Calculations: Isotonic Solution Potency Range and Solubility Calculations
Stockton Shelly J
Mar/Apr 2024
Pg. 128-129

Calcium Levulinate 15-mg/mL Injection
Allen Loyd V Jr
Jul/Aug 1999
Pg. 298

Basics of Sterile Compounding: Excipients Used in Injections
Akers Michael J
Jul/Aug 2017
Pg. 301-308

Basics of Sterile Compounding: Vehicles Used in Sterile Compounding
Allen Loyd V Jr
May/Jun 2019
Pg. 221-228

Basics: Excipients Used in Nonsterile Compounding, Part 6: Compounding with Viscosity-increasing Agents
Allen Loyd V Jr
May/Jun 2020
Pg. 206-212

Mupirocin Calcium 2% Cream
Allen Loyd V Jr
Jan/Feb 2016
Pg. 52

Sodium Phosphates Injection
Allen Loyd V Jr
Jan/Feb 2012
Pg. 78

Stability of Verapamil Hydrochloride in SyrSpend SF Compared to Sorbitol Containing Syrup and Suspending Vehicles
Voudrie Mark A
, Alexander Bridget, Allen D Brett
May/Jun 2011
Pg. 255-258

Return to Top