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Compounding for the Treatment of COVID-19 and Long COVID, Part 3: The Role of Toll-like Receptors in SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID Development

Author(s):  Riepl Mike, Kaiser Joe

Issue:  May/Jun 2023 - Volume 27, Number 3
View All Articles in Issue

Page(s):  192-200

Compounding for the Treatment of COVID-19 and Long COVID, Part 3: The Role of Toll-like Receptors in SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID Development Page 1
Compounding for the Treatment of COVID-19 and Long COVID, Part 3: The Role of Toll-like Receptors in SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID Development Page 2
Compounding for the Treatment of COVID-19 and Long COVID, Part 3: The Role of Toll-like Receptors in SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID Development Page 3
Compounding for the Treatment of COVID-19 and Long COVID, Part 3: The Role of Toll-like Receptors in SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID Development Page 4
Compounding for the Treatment of COVID-19 and Long COVID, Part 3: The Role of Toll-like Receptors in SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID Development Page 5
Compounding for the Treatment of COVID-19 and Long COVID, Part 3: The Role of Toll-like Receptors in SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID Development Page 6
Compounding for the Treatment of COVID-19 and Long COVID, Part 3: The Role of Toll-like Receptors in SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID Development Page 7
Compounding for the Treatment of COVID-19 and Long COVID, Part 3: The Role of Toll-like Receptors in SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID Development Page 8
Compounding for the Treatment of COVID-19 and Long COVID, Part 3: The Role of Toll-like Receptors in SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID Development Page 9

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Abstract:  Toll-like receptors, which are type I transmembrane proteins and pattern recognition receptors found on cell surfaces and in intracellular membranes, serve as central mediators of both initial innate-immune responses and secondary adaptive/acquired-immune responses. Toll-like receptor 4, the activation of which leads to the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, has been shown to have a vital role in the innate immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In our practice of pharmaceutical compounding, we noted that some individuals with coronavirus disease– 2019 (COVID-19) or long COVID achieved limited or no benefit from commercially manufactured treatments designed to alleviate symptoms and enable recovery. We suggest that in such cases, a compounded formulation, which can be easily customized to provide that support, may be of benefit. This article provides a brief review of the ways in which toll-like receptors in general, and toll-like receptor 4 in particular, affect the development and progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19, especially with respect to the human respiratory and central nervous systems and people rendered vulnerable by a comorbid condition (diabetes, obesity) or age. Instructions for compounding 2 customized preparations useful in the treatment of COVID-19 and long COVID are also provided.

Related Keywords: Mike Riepl, RPh, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, long COVID, toll-like receptors, type I transmembrane proteins, pattern recognition receptors, immune mediators, toll-like receptor 4, TLR4, comorbid conditions, initial innate immune response, secondary adaptive/acquired immune response, lung injury, respiratory failure, hypoxia, inflammatory exudates, neuroinflammation, diabetes, obesity, elderly, naltrexone hydrochloride, formulations, Joe Kaiser, PharmD, RPh

Related Categories: FORMULATIONS, GERIATRICS, ALLERGY/IMMUNOLOGY/INFLAMMATION, INFECTIOUS DISEASE

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