Bot Detector
Download FREE Sample Issue or Article
Subscribe Today
A subscription to IJPC includes a print copy delivered by postal mail and on-line access to electronic PDF copies of your subscribed issues.

Safety Aspects of Extemporaneous Prescriptions Prescribed by Latvian Healthcare Specialists

Author(s):  Kiselova Olga, Maurina Baiba, Sidlovska Venta

Issue:  Jul/Aug 2021 - Volume 25, Number 4
View All Articles in Issue

Abstract:  Until 1991, Latvia had been part of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and medicines in Latvia were prepared in accordance with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Pharmacopoeia and standardized prescriptions. Latvia regained its independence 30 years ago, but Latvia still does not have its standardized prescriptions and official sources of information in the official language. So far, there have been no studies which would collect data about prescribed extemporaneous prescriptions and characterize the current situation in different Latvian regions. For this reason, we analyzed the extemporaneous prescriptions prepared in Latvian pharmacies in 2017. Previous studies identified specialties of those physicians who prescribed extemporaneous prescriptions most often, the most popular dosage forms, as well as identified the active substances, combinations of active substances, and excipients most commonly used in dermatology and rhinology. Having analyzed the compositions prescribed in dermatology and rhinology, our greatest concern was related to the fact that several substances were identified, the use of which in Germany was controversial or even unacceptable in certain dosage forms. The presence of such substances in Latvian prescriptions constitutes a risk to patient safety, and, since part of this article was to analyze all the collected extemporaneous prescriptions to identify unsafe substances. In order to gain insight into usage habits of these substances outside the European Union, information about them was searched in the U.S. As the history of the use of these substances in Latvia dates back to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, we wanted to learn whether they are mentioned in modern Russian professional literature. Having analyzed extemporaneous prescriptions of Latvian pharmacies, seven substances were identified: boric acid, borax, mercuric oxide, sodium bromide, potassium bromide, phenol, and formaldehyde. Boric acid, bromides, phenol, and formaldehyde were also found in modern U.S. and Russian professional literature. However, in this article, safety aspects in relation to the use of these substances in the preparation of medicines are emphasized. Preparations containing mercuric oxide are not found in the current U.S. or Russian professional literature.

Related Keywords: Olga Kiselova, PharmD, Baiba Maurina, PhD, Venta Sidlovska, PhD, Latvia, drug safety, hazardous excipients, USSR Pharmacopeia, physician specialists, Germany, boric acid, mercuric oxide, sodium bromide, borax, liquefied phenol, potassium bromide, formaldehyde solution, Medical Compounds, USP Compounding Compendium


Printer-Friendly Version

Download in electronic PDF format for $65

Related Articles from IJPC
Title (Click for Abstract / Details) Author Issue Page View/Buy
Safety Aspects of Extemporaneous Prescriptions Prescribed by Latvian Healthcare Specialists Kiselova Olga, Maurina Baiba, Sidlovska Venta Jul/Aug 2021 288-295 Buy
Trends of Extemporaneous Drug Prescription in Latvia in 2017 Kiselova Olga, Maurina Baiba, Sidlovska Venta, Rogovska Irena May/Jun 2019 245-249 Buy
Analysis of Extemporaneously Compounded Nasal Preparations Prescribed by Latvian Otorhinolaryngologists and General Practitioners and Comparison with German Formulations Kiselova Olga, Maurina Baiba, Sidlovska Venta Nov/Dec 2020 491-500 Buy
Acidifying Agents, Featured Excipient: Allen Loyd V Jr Jul/Aug 1999 309-310 Buy
Safety Standards in Pharmaceutical Compounding, Part 3: Fire Safety Allen W Chris, Greeson Nicole MH, Mixon William Nov/Dec 2020 451-458 Buy
How to Develop and Maintain a Hazardous Drug List Dillon L Rad May/Jun 2019 182-186 Buy
Basics of Compounding for Disorders of the External Ear Allen Loyd V Jr Jan/Feb 2004 46-48 Buy
Basics of Compounding for Hazardous Drugs, Part 2: Regulation and Sources of Contamination Allen Loyd V Jr Nov/Dec 2006 446-448 Buy
Potassium Bromide 500-mg/mL Oral Solution for Animals Allen Loyd V Jr Jul/Aug 1997 261 Buy
Erratum: Kiselova O, Maurina B, Sidlovska V et al. Trends of Extemporaneous Drug Prescription in Latvia in 2017. IJPC 2019; 23(3): 245-249. Jul/Aug 2019 351 Buy
Particle Measuring Systems - USP <797> Environmental Monitoring Solutions