Bot Detector
IJPC Seal
Download FREE Sample Issue or Article
LEARN MORE
Subscribe Today
A subscription to IJPC provides on-line access to full-text, full-color, printable PDF copies of your subscribed issues, individual articles, and purchased archives.

Health Care in Belarus in the 19th and 20th Centuries

Author(s):  Tishchenko Evgenii Mikhailovich

Issue:  Sep/Oct 2014 - Volume 18, Number 5
View All Articles in Issue

Page(s):  382-391

Health Care in Belarus in the 19th and 20th Centuries Page 1
Health Care in Belarus in the 19th and 20th Centuries Page 2
Health Care in Belarus in the 19th and 20th Centuries Page 3
Health Care in Belarus in the 19th and 20th Centuries Page 4
Health Care in Belarus in the 19th and 20th Centuries Page 5
Health Care in Belarus in the 19th and 20th Centuries Page 6
Health Care in Belarus in the 19th and 20th Centuries Page 7
Health Care in Belarus in the 19th and 20th Centuries Page 8
Health Care in Belarus in the 19th and 20th Centuries Page 9
Health Care in Belarus in the 19th and 20th Centuries Page 10

Download in electronic PDF format for $75

Abstract:  Belarus became a Soviet Socialist Republic in the USSR in 1921. Belarus is now an independent country between Poland and Lithuania and Russia. The pharmacy sector of Belarus improved in fits and starts from 1921 to the present but serious quantitative and qualitative problems were evident until the 21st century. A number of factors caused this situation. The Soviet Republic of Belarus started with handicaps. The area, comprised of several provinces of western Russia, had no pharmaceutical factories during the imperial period and, while pharmacies were of high quality in the cities all over the Russian Empire—including Minsk, which became the capital of Belarus—pharmacies were sparse and primitive in rural areas and Belarus was basically rural. Belarus was devastated by wars—World War I, the Russian-Polish war of 1920-21, and of course, by World War II. The Bolshevik policy of nationalizing private pharmacies adversely affected dispensing between 1918 and 1921. Dispensing improved during the New Economic Policy of 1921 to 1927 with re-introduction of private enterprise and the establishment of BelMedTorg and the Mogilev Experimental Station of Medicinal Plants. The number of pharmacies and medical facilities increased during the 1930s and again after World War II. However, utopian plans to provide free or low-cost medicines to all citizens never came to fruition. Inadequate amounts of state-of the-art and even basic medicines persisted through the 1990s. The number of pharmacists also was inadequate and their education and training was on a low level. Because of shortages, citizens of Belarus often self-medicated with medicinal plants. The transition to a market economy in the 1990s made medicines expensive for citizens but opened the door to greater interaction with Western pharmaceutical practices and physical improvements in pharmacies and pharmaceutical production.

Related Keywords: Evgenii Mikhailovich Tishchenko, PhD, Belarus, formulations, medicinal plants

Related Categories: FORMULATIONS, HISTORY

Printer-Friendly Version



Related Articles from IJPC
Title/Author
(Click for Abstract / Details / Purchase)
Issue/​Page
View/Buy
Health Care in Belarus in the 19th and 20th Centuries
Tishchenko Evgenii Mikhailovich
Sep/Oct 2014
Pg. 382-391

Healthful Living: Good Practices for Good Health
Jackson Kathy
May/Jun 2002
Pg. 164-166

Women's Oral Health: Is There a Hormonal Link?
Preckshot John
Jan/Feb 2004
Pg. 10-14

Basics of Compounding for Hair Care--Part I: Medicated Shampoos
Fonseca Simonne C
Mar/Apr 2005
Pg. 140-144

Men's Health: Practical Solutions to a Profoundly Underrated Health-Care Crisis
Milner Martin
Mar/Apr 1999
Pg. 76-79

Antimicrobial Activity of Copaiba (Copaifera officinalis) and Pracaxi (Pentaclethra macroloba) Oils against Staphylococcus aureus: Importance in Compounding for Wound Care
Guimarães Anna Luísa Aguiar
, Cunha Elisa Alves, Matias Fernanda Oliveira, Garcia Patrícia Guedes, Danopoulos Panagiota, Swikidisa Rosita, Pinheiro Vanessa Alves, Nogueira Rodrigo José Lupatini
Jan/Feb 2016
Pg. 58-62

Compounded Drugs of Value in Outpatient Hospice and Palliative Care Practice
McNulty John P
, Muller George
May/Jun 2014
Pg. 190-200

Pediatric Health Care: An Introduction
Williams LaVonn A
Jan/Feb 2013
Pg. 6-8

Maillard Reactions in Pharmaceutical Formulations and Human Health
Newton David W
Jan/Feb 2011
Pg. 32-40

HRT and the Continuing Education of Health Care Professionals
Boomsma Diane
Jan/Feb 1998
Pg. 18-19

Home Infusion and Alternative-Site Health Care: The Big Picture
Lima Hetty A
Sep/Oct 1997
Pg. 294-297

Drug Stability and Compatibility: Special Considerations for Home Health Care
Lima Hetty A
Sep/Oct 1997
Pg. 301-305

Basics of Compounding: Cosmetics for Special Populations and Using Cosmetics as Vehicles
Allen Loyd V Jr
Mar/Apr 2002
Pg. 102-105

Need for Appropriate Formulations for Children: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development--Pediatric Formulations Initiative, Part 2
Giacoia George P
, Taylor-Zapata Perdita, Mattison Donald
May/Jun 2007
Pg. 220-225

Breast Care Cream
Allen Loyd V Jr
Nov/Dec 2007
Pg. 505

Compounding for Skin Care: An Interview with John Hollis, RPh
Vail Jane
Mar/Apr 2002
Pg. 85-86

Rapid-Dissolve Technology: An Interview With Loyd V. Allen, Jr., PhD, RPh
Allen Loyd V Jr
Nov/Dec 2003
Pg. 449-450

Basics of Compounding for Cough
Allen Loyd V Jr
Nov/Dec 2004
Pg. 462-465

Home Infusion: Overview of the Infusion Patient-Care Process
Kennedy Steve
Jul/Aug 2011
Pg. 270-276

Restructuring the Art of Health by Pharmacists: Formulation Designs with Oral Vehicles--Teaching Pharmacy Students
Benischek Rita
Mar/Apr 2017
Pg. 105-108

Return to Top