Bot Detector
Download FREE Sample Issue or Article
Subscribe Today
A subscription to IJPC includes a print copy delivered by postal mail and on-line access to electronic PDF copies of your subscribed issues.

Protocol of Blood Serum Eye Drops

Author(s):  Katsakoulas Ioannis, Lougovoi Claudia, Paraskevopoulou Penelope, Vougioukas Nikolaos

Issue:  May/Jun 2015 - Volume 19, Number 3
View All Articles in Issue

Abstract:  Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is one of the most frequent diagnoses for seeking eye care. Accumulated evidence over the past three decades has revealed a significant contribution of several molecules contained in tears at the homeostasis of the epithelium of the ocular surface. Therefore, autologous blood serum in the form of eye drops can provide substantial help in the management of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Also making this a favorable treatment for keratoconjunctivitis sicca is the fact that this approach has become an insurance-covered benefit in some countries. This report demonstrates a formulation of blood serum eye drops with the purpose of providing an alternative to the marked absence of a universally established protocol. Exclusion criteria, equipment, preservation, dosage, duration, and guidelines for patients are described. Also included are details on the treatment of one representative embodiment. All (pre-/post-)analytical considerations and the total cost are addressed. Outcome measures such as Schirmer’ s test, break up time, and Ocular Surface Disease Index score are recorded before treatment, at 1 and 2 months, ideally as monotherapy with 100% serum q.i.d. Blood serum isolated under aseptic conditions maintained throughout is delivered as a ready-to-use formulation to the patient. Serum eye drops should be included in the modern armamentarium against keratoconjunctivitis sicca, and, hopefully, their eventual widespread application will result in coverage by most if not all insurance funds. The implementation described contributes to the hopeful establishment of a standardized protocol and provides a potentially benefit of a low-cost, applicable treatment of the ocular epithelium without side effects.

Related Keywords: Ioannis Katsakoulas, BSc, Claudia Lougovoi, PhD, Penelope Paraskevopoulou, Nikolaos Vougiouskas, blood serum eye drops, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, tears, ocular surface, autologous blood serum, drug cost, dry eye syndrome, patient exclusion criteria, Ocular Surface Disease Index, break-up time test, Rose Bengal test, Schirmer test, aseptic compounding, blood products, serologic tests


Printer-Friendly Version

Download in electronic PDF format for $55

Related Articles from IJPC
Title (Click for Abstract / Details) Author Issue Page View/Buy
Protocol of Blood Serum Eye Drops Katsakoulas Ioannis, Lougovoi Claudia, Paraskevopoulou Penelope, Vougioukas Nikolaos May/Jun 2015 252-260 Buy
Autologous Eye Drops for the Treatment of Dry Eye and Neurotrophic Keratitis Mixon William, Angelle Patricea (Patsy), Chang Richard I Nov/Dec 2009 506-515 Buy
Long-term Stability of Epitheliotropic Factors in Frozen Serum Eye Drops Sahyoun Jean-Yves, Cloutier Marc, Frenette Mathieu, Robert Marie-Claude Jul/Aug 2022 336-341 Buy
Autologous Serum Eye Drops for Severe Dry Eye Syndrome in a Patient with Chronic Graft-vs-Host Disease: A Case Report Mixon Bill, Mixon Jan, Isbey Edward K III, Sprinkle Shari Sep/Oct 2014 370-377 Buy
Quality-Control Analytical Methods: Applications and Sterility of Autologous Eye Drops Reed-Kane Dana, Carlson Rachel A, Kupiec Thomas C, Vu Nicole Nov/Dec 2009 540-543 Buy
Stability and In Vitro Toxicity of an Infliximab Eye Drop Formulation Robert Marie-Claude, Spurr-Michaud Sandra, Frenette Mathieu, Young David, Gipson Ilene K, Dohlman Claes H Sep/Oct 2014 418-426 Buy
Measurement of Free Iodine in Different Formulations of Povidone-Iodine Eye Drops 5% Berisa Prado Silvia, Riestra Ayora Ana Cristina, Trelles Campa Adrián Sep/Oct 2019 418-421 Buy
Veterinary Ophthalmic Practice: Therapeutic Considerations and Common Ocular Diseases - Part 3 Davidson Gigi S Sep/Oct 2004 359-367 Buy
Artificial Tears for Dry Eyes Allen Loyd V Jr Sep/Oct 2000 376 Buy
Evaluation of Closed-system Transfer Devices in Reducing Potential Risk for Surface Contamination Following Simulated Hazardous-drug Preparation and Compounding (Reprint) Soefje Scott, Rickabaugh Keith, Rajkumar Rahul, Wall Kathryn P Jan/Feb 2022 72-79 Buy