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Basic Principles of Lyophilization, Part 2

Author(s):  Akers Michael J

Issue:  Jan/Feb 2016 - Volume 20, Number 1
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Page(s):  20-27

Basic Principles of Lyophilization, Part 2 Page 1
Basic Principles of Lyophilization, Part 2 Page 2
Basic Principles of Lyophilization, Part 2 Page 3
Basic Principles of Lyophilization, Part 2 Page 4
Basic Principles of Lyophilization, Part 2 Page 5
Basic Principles of Lyophilization, Part 2 Page 6
Basic Principles of Lyophilization, Part 2 Page 7
Basic Principles of Lyophilization, Part 2 Page 8

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Abstract:  The achievement of a high-quality lyophilized (freeze-dried) dosage form involves the combination of optimal formulation design and optimal freezedry cycle design. Part 1 of this 2-part article discussed the basic principles and procedures of lyophilization up to a discussion on the different stages of lyophilization. The stages of lyophilization are discussed within this article.

Related Keywords: Michael J. Akers, PhD, lyophilization, freeze drying stages, cooling-freezing, primary drying, secondary drying, troubleshooting, supercooling, cooling rate, protein stability, parenteral process technology, product formulation, quality control


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