Bot Detector
Download FREE Sample Issue or Article
Subscribe Today
A subscription to IJPC provides on-line access to full-text, full-color, printable PDF copies of your subscribed issues, individual articles, and purchased archives.

Tonicity-Adjusting Agents, Featured Excipient:

Author(s):  Allen Loyd V Jr

Issue:  May/Jun 2000 - Compounding for the Ear, Nose and Throat
View All Articles in Issue

Page(s):  218-220

Tonicity-Adjusting Agents, Featured Excipient: Page 1
Tonicity-Adjusting Agents, Featured Excipient: Page 2
Tonicity-Adjusting Agents, Featured Excipient: Page 3

Download in electronic PDF format for $75

Abstract:  The tonicity of solutions is a colligative property that depends primarily on the number of dissolved particles in solution. In this article, the author discusses the following United States Pharmacopeia/National Formulary tonicity-adjusting agents: Dextrose USP, Glycerin USP, Mannitol USP, Potassium Chloride USP, and Sodium Chloride USP. He also discusses compounding nasal solutions and ophthalmic solutions and provides a table listing physicochemical characteristics of the tonicity agents listed in the United States Pharmacopeia 24/National Formulary 19.

Related Keywords: boiling point, colligative properties, dextrose, freezing point, glycerin, hypertonic, hypotonic, iso-osmotic, isotonic, mannitol, nasal solutions, ophthalmic solutions, potassium, sodium chloride, tonicity, vapor pressure

Related Categories: EXCIPIENTS, SUPPORT

Printer-Friendly Version

Related Articles from IJPC
(Click for Abstract / Details / Purchase)
Tonicity-Adjusting Agents, Featured Excipient:
Allen Loyd V Jr
May/Jun 2000
Pg. 218-220

Wetting and/or Solubilizing Agents, Featured Excipient:
Allen Loyd V Jr
Jul/Aug 2001
Pg. 310-312

Compatibility and Stability of Potassium Chloride and Magnesium Sulfate in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection and 5% Dextrose Injection Solutions
Quay Irene
, Tan Edward
Jul/Aug 2001
Pg. 323-324

Basics of Sterile Compounding: Ophthalmic Preparations, Part 1: Ophthalmic Solutions
Allen Loyd V Jr
Sep/Oct 2016
Pg. 399-404

Basics of Compounding: Compounding Irrigation Solutions for Sterile and Nonsterile Preparations
Allen Loyd V Jr
Nov/Dec 2017
Pg. 481-486

Three Fortified Ophthalmic Solutions: Amikacin 5% Ophthalmic Solution; Ceftazidime 5% Ophthalmic Solution; Vancomycin 5% Ophthalmic Solution
Allen Loyd V Jr
Sep/Oct 2010
Pg. 421

Basics of Compounding for Disorders of the External Ear
Allen Loyd V Jr
Jan/Feb 2004
Pg. 46-48

Sweetening Agents, Featured Excipient:
Allen Loyd V Jr
May/Jun 1999
Pg. 228-231

Alkalizing Agents, Featured Excipient:
Allen Loyd V Jr
Sep/Oct 1999
Pg. 404-405

A Simplified Extemporaneously Prepared Potassium Chloride Oral Solution
Tannous Elias
, Tal Yana, Amarny Kamal
Sep/Oct 2016
Pg. 438-439

Compounding Ear, Nose and Throat Preparations
Allen Loyd V Jr
May/Jun 2000
Pg. 164-169

Basics of Sterile Compounding: Excipients Used in Injections
Akers Michael J
Jul/Aug 2017
Pg. 301-308

Formulation and Stability of Solutions
Akers Michael J
Mar/Apr 2016
Pg. 137-141

Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Ophthalmic Solution: Equivalent to 0.1% Dexamethasone Phosphate
Allen Loyd V Jr
Nov/Dec 2015
Pg. 508

Featured Excipient: Flavor Enhancing Agents
Allen Loyd V Jr
Jan/Feb 2003
Pg. 48-50

Isotonic Sodium Chloride Solution Vehicle for Ophthalmics
Allen Loyd V Jr
May/Jun 1998
Pg. 188

An Excel Spreadsheet for Estimating Sodium-Chloride Equivalents for Drugs
Monnot Chris L
Mar/Apr 2004
Pg. 123-125

Basics of Sterile Compounding: Bubble Point Testing
Thoma Laura
Jan/Feb 2014
Pg. 54-57

Potassium Chloride 2-mEq/mL Injection
Allen Loyd V Jr
Jan/Feb 2014
Pg. 67

Compounding Pharmacies' Potential to Create Graft Storage Solutions for Bypass Surgeries
Guth Michael AS
Sep/Oct 2015
Pg. 367-373

Return to Top