Bot Detector
IJPC Seal
Download FREE Sample Issue or Article
LEARN MORE
Subscribe Today
A subscription to IJPC provides on-line access to full-text, full-color, printable PDF copies of your subscribed issues, individual articles, and purchased archives.

Formulation and Stability of Solutions

Author(s):  Akers Michael J

Issue:  Mar/Apr 2016 - Volume 20, Number 2
View All Articles in Issue

Page(s):  137-141

Formulation and Stability of Solutions Page 1
Formulation and Stability of Solutions Page 2
Formulation and Stability of Solutions Page 3
Formulation and Stability of Solutions Page 4
Formulation and Stability of Solutions Page 5

Download in electronic PDF format for $75

Abstract:  Ready-to-use solutions are the most preferable and most common dosage forms for injectable and topical ophthalmic products. Drugs formulated as solution almost always have chemical and physical stability challenges as well as solubility limitations and the need to prevent inadvertent microbial contamination issues. The first in this series of articles took us through a discussion of optimizing the physical stability of solutions. This article concludes this series of articles with a discussion on foreign particles, protein aggregation, and immunogenicity; optimizing microbiological activity; and osmolality (tonicity) agents, and discusses how these challenges and issues are addressed.

Related Keywords: Michael J. Akers, PhD, ready to use solutions, physical stability, foreign particles, protein aggregation, protein aggregates, immunogenicity, protein adsorption, surfactants, protein denaturation, polysorbates, sodium dodecyl sulfate, cyclodextrins, solubility, bioavailability, serum albumin, stabilizer, multiple dose formulations, antimicrobial preservatives, compounded sterile preparations, preservative efficacy test, United States Pharmacopeia Chapter <51>, USP, European Pharmacopeia, drug contamination, osmolality agents, tonicity-adjusting agents, isotonic, hydrolysis, hydrolytic reactions, oxidation, oxidative reactions, buffers, antioxidants, chelating agents, inert gases, biopharmaceuticals, competitive binders, mechanical stress

Related Categories: EXCIPIENTS, PARENTERALS, STABILITIES, COMPATIBILITIES, QUALITY CONTROL, DOSAGE FORMS/DRUG CARRIERS

Printer-Friendly Version



Related Articles from IJPC
Title/Author
(Click for Abstract / Details / Purchase)
Issue/​Page
View/Buy
Basics of Sterile Compounding: Manipulating Peptides and Proteins
Akers Michael J
May/Jun 2017
Pg. 223-228

Formulation and Stability of Solutions
Akers Michael J
Mar/Apr 2016
Pg. 137-141

Formulation and Stability of Solutions
Akers Michael J
Jan/Feb 2016
Pg. 41-45

Proteins Used as Sweeteners
Li Xiaojian
, Alexander Kenneth S
Nov/Dec 2007
Pg. 476-481

Investigation of the Physical, Chemical, and Microbiological Stability of Oral Solutions Compounded with Herbals
Khokhlova Kateryna O
, Zdoryk Oleksandr A
May/Jun 2018
Pg. 240-246

Basics of Sterile Compounding: Excipients Used in Injections
Akers Michael J
Jul/Aug 2017
Pg. 301-308

pH Stability of Injectable Fentanyl, Bupivacaine, or Clonidine Solution or a Ternary Mixture in 0.9% Sodium Chloride in Two Types of Polypropylene Syringes
Jappinen Annaliisa L
, Kokki H, Rasi A S, Naaranlahti Toivo J
Nov/Dec 2002
Pg. 471-474

Formulation, Physical Stability, and the Clinical Effectiveness of Extemporaneous Ivermectin Oral Solution
Zaid Abdel-Naser
, Zaaror Yara Abu, Qaddumi Aiman, Ratrout Ala, Ahmad Ayda, Hamad Emad, Kittana Naim
Nov/Dec 2021
Pg. 523-527

Basics of Compounding: Excipients Used in Nonsterile Compounding, Part 7: Compounding with Surfactants
Allen Loyd V Jr
Sep/Oct 2020
Pg. 388-395

Basics of Compounding: Compounding Irrigation Solutions for Sterile and Nonsterile Preparations
Allen Loyd V Jr
Nov/Dec 2017
Pg. 481-486

Long-term Stability of Epitheliotropic Factors in Frozen Serum Eye Drops
Sahyoun Jean-Yves
, Cloutier Marc, Frenette Mathieu, Robert Marie-Claude
Jul/Aug 2022
Pg. 336-341

Intravenous Admixture Preparation Considerations, Part 7: Stability Issues
Allen Loyd V Jr
Nov/Dec 2020
Pg. 473-478

Basics of Compounding for Disorders of the External Ear
Allen Loyd V Jr
Jan/Feb 2004
Pg. 46-48

Extemporaneous Formulation and Stability Testing of Mexiletine HCl Solution
Alexander Kenneth S
, Kaushik Sarita
Mar/Apr 2004
Pg. 147-152

Physicochemical Stability and Compatibility of Revefenacin (LAMA) and Formoterol Fumarate (LABA) Inhalation Solution Admixture
Ngim Kenley
, Patel Jalpa
May/Jun 2020
Pg. 242-245

Beyond-use Date of Trimix: A Reproducible Stability Study Using Bracketing Design
Patel Gopesh
, Davis Countaney, Liu Yi, Ip Kendice, Debideen Krystal E, Anderson Stephanie, Byrne Robert, Herr Dylan, Rhoads Melissa Merrell, Caputo Ross, Banov Daniel, Bassani August S
Jan/Feb 2021
Pg. 73-81

Physical and Chemical Stability of Budesonide Mucoadhesive Oral Suspensions (MucoLox)
Ip Kendice
, Carvalho Maria, Shan Ashley, Banov Daniel
Jul/Aug 2017
Pg. 322-329

Basics of Sterile Compounding: Biopharmaceutics of Injectable Dosage Forms
Akers Michael J
Jan/Feb 2017
Pg. 47-56

Physical and Chemical Stability of Low and High Concentrations of Morphine Sulfate with Clonidine Hydrochloride Packaged in Plastic Syringes
Xu Quanyun A
, Trissel Lawrence A, Pham Lien
Jan/Feb 2002
Pg. 66-69

Physical and Chemical Stability of Low and High Concentrations of Morphine Sulfate with Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Packaged in Plastic Syringes
Trissel Lawrence A
, Xu Quanyun A, Pham Lien
Jan/Feb 2002
Pg. 70-73

Return to Top